Dr. Lisa Krasko-Turcotte - Dr. Doriana Veneziano

Eye Health

  • Cataracts

    Cataracts are clouding or yellowing of the crystalline lens inside the eye. Cataracts typically take years to develop to a point where one’s vision is noticeably affected but some cataracts can develop quickly. Exposure to sunlight over time and age are common causes of cataracts. Other causes are injury, certain diseases, smoking and some medications.

    Symptoms of cataracts are blurred vision especially while driving and glare off headlights. There are often changes in one’s spectacle prescription as cataracts form.

    Cataracts are diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination by a Doctor of Optometry. Regular eye care is important because as one’s eyes change with cataract development it is important to have the best spectacle prescription to maximize one’s vision.

    Surgery is indicated for treating cataracts when glasses can no longer give adequate vision. A Doctor of Optometry will help to determine when cataract surgery is indicated and refer one to a cataract surgeon. The cataract surgeon will remove the cloudy lens and replace it with a clear, plastic intraocular lens. After surgery one’s distance vison is typically quite clear but near vision is blurry. New spectacles to maximize both distance and near vision are often prescribed 5 weeks following cataract surgery. If you are having trouble seeing, book an appointment with one of our Doctors of Optometry.

  • Blepharitis

    Blepharitis is chronic inflammation of the eyelids caused mainly by a bacterial infection but can also be caused by toxins or allergies.

    Symptoms of blepharitis are red, itchy eyelids with scales visible at the base of the eyelashes. The eyelids can become quite swollen and sore and create a burning sensation. The eyelids can be very crusty upon awakening in the morning and can even be stuck shut. If left untreated the eyelid glands can become plugged up and lead to symptoms of dry eye, loss of lashes and can cause styes to form.

    Treatment for Blepharitis is ongoing eyelid hygiene. This includes using warm compresses and cleaning the eyelid margins with special lid wipes. Sometimes an antibacterial ointment is required on a short-term basis to control the bacterial infection.

    If you have any of these symptoms, book an appointment with one of our Doctors of Optometry.

  • Computer Vision Syndrome

    As our society becomes more dependent on computers, we find ourselves spending more time each day in front of a screen. This can lead to a myriad ofsymptoms referred to as Computer Vision Syndrome.

    Symptoms of computer vision syndrome include eyestrain, headaches, blurred vision, eye pain and head and neck strain.

    Treatment for computer vision syndrome includes proper spectacle prescription, even for small refractive errors. Binocular vision is also important withcomputer use so correcting binocular vision problems can make computer use more comfortable. Having a properly fitted lens design and frame can make a bigdifference with symptoms.

    The following points may help to reduce computer vision syndrome:

    • Set your screen at arms length from your eyes and approximately 20 degrees below eye level.

    • Wear spectacles with anti reflective and blue light protective lenses.

    • If you wear bifocals or progressive lenses and find yourself tilting your head back to see the screen, you need to be fit with a task specific computerlens to avoid head and neck muscle strain.

    • The room lighting should be about the same brightness as your computer screen.

    • Every 20 minutes, look 20 feet away from the computer for 20 seconds and blink your eyes several times. You may find that using artificial tears may helpas well.

    If you are experiencing Computer Vision Syndrome, book an appointment with one of our Doctors of Optometry.

  • Glaucoma

    Glaucoma is an eye disease where the optic nerve inside the eye becomes damaged, causing loss of vision over time. It usually happens when fluid builds upin the front part of the eye. That extra fluid increases the pressure in the eye causing damage to the optic nerve. High pressure doesn’t always causeglaucoma but it is a risk factor. Damage to the optic nerve slowly causes blind spots to form in one’s side vision, eventually leading to blindness if nottreated.

    Risk factors for glaucoma include family history, high intraocular pressure, African decent, thin corneas, increased age, very near-sightedness or very farsighted eyes and eye injuries or surgeries.

    Glaucoma and glaucoma risk factors are diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam. A Doctor of Optometry will assess the eye pressure, look at the opticnerves and may do extra testing such as pachymetry, Visual field testing, gonioscopy and optical coherence tomography to look for the development of glaucoma.

    There are different kinds of glaucoma.

    Primary open angle glaucoma develops very gradually. There are no symptoms of vision loss from glaucoma until the condition is very advanced andsignificant vision has already been lost.

    Acute angle closure glaucoma can cause symptoms of blurred vision, a red painful eye, haloes around lights and nausea.

    Primary Open Angle glaucoma is treated with eyedrops to lower the pressure inside the eye to a safer level to prevent further damage to the optic nerve.One may sometimes need to be on several different glaucoma drops to keep the pressure at a safe level. Laser surgery is also used when the glaucoma eye dropscannot keep the pressure at a safe level. In very advanced cases, filtering surgery with special valves are inserted into the eye to lower the pressure.

    Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma is treated by using a laser to create a hole in the iris to allow fluid to drain from the back to the front of the eye to thefiltration system.

    Glaucoma responds best to treatment when it is diagnosed early. Comprehensive eye examinations are important to find early signs of damage to the opticnerve and will reduce your risk of losing vision from glaucoma.

    Adults should have regular eye exams every 2 years and seniors should be examined annually.

    If you have a family history of glaucoma, or any of the risk factors listed, book an appointment with one of our Doctors of Optometry.

  • Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

    AMD is an age related condition affecting the macula. The macula is the area of the retina that provides us with our central vision, allowing us to seedetail such as reading vision and recognizing peoples faces. There are 2 forms of macular degeneration:


    Dry macular degeneration presents with yellow spots under the macula called DRUSEN or colour changes in the macula. In it’s early form AMD does not have anoticeable effect on one’s vision. In advanced stages of Dry AMD, one may notice distortion in their near vision or blind spots in their central vision.


    Wet AMD is responsible for up to 90% of severe vision loss due to macular degeneration. Wet AMD is caused by the growth of abnormal blood vessels below thesurface of the macula. These abnormal blood vessels leak causing distortion. As scar tissue forms from the leaking blood vessels, loss of central visionoccurs.

    Risk factors for AMD include:

    • Age: 36% of people age 75 and over have AMD

    • Family history

    • Female gender

    • Blue or light coloured irises

    • Light skin colour

    • Smokers are 6 times more likely to develop AMD

    • Diet low in vitamins and minerals

    • Excessive sunlight exposure

    • Excessive weight

    Both forms of AMD are detected through a comprehensive eye examination. Special testing such as Optical Coherence Tomography and Retinal images may betaken to monitor Dry AMD or confirm diagnosis and treatment effect of Wet AMD.

    There is no treatment available to reverse macular degeneration. Numerous studies have shown that the antioxidants Lutein and Zeaxanthin can slow down theprogression of macular degeneration. Sun protection is also important to reduce ultraviolet radiation and smoking should be avoided.

    Treatment for Wet AMD involves stopping the growth of abnormal blood vessels below the surface of the macula. Anti-VEGF therapy involves injecting amedicine into the eye which causes the abnormal vessels to stop leaking and shrink. It involves multiple treatments usually 4-5 weeks apart to be effective.Faster diagnosis and treatment will improve vision outcomes.

    If you have a family history of macular degeneration or have any risk factors listed, book an appointment with one of our Doctors of Optometry.

  • Diabetic Retinopathy

    Diabetic retinopathy occurs when high glucose in the blood over time causes weakening of the tiny blood vessels inside the eye. The blood vessel walls become leaky, causing blood and cholesterol to leak out of the blood vessels and into the retina. The retina can begin to swell causing tissue damage and vision loss. New abnormal and leaky blood vessels can form which can cause severe bleeding and sudden vision loss.

    In its early stages, there are no symptoms of diabetic retinopathy but in its advanced stages diabetic retinopathy can cause severe vision loss. Other symptoms of diabetes are blurred or fluctuating vision and double vision.

    Treatment for advanced diabetic retinopathy can involve injections with Anti-VEGF medication, laser therapy or retinal surgery.

    Changes in the eye due to diabetes can be detected during an eye exam. Optimal blood glucose, blood pressure and blood cholesterol control are the best way to prevent diabetic retinopathy from occurring or advancing.

    Annual comprehensive eye exams are essential to prevent vision loss from diabetes. If you have diabetes, book your annual exam with one of our Doctors of Optometry.

  • To learn more about different eye conditions go to the following websites: